The submission process is broken into the following steps:
- Step 1: Specifying the manuscript
type, and submitting a covering letter
- Step 2: Specifying the author information, title, abstract, and keywords
for the manuscript
- Step 3: Uploading the body text
- Step 4: Specifying the list of attachments and uploading those attachments (tables, figures, equations, appendices)
- Step 5: Final verification of the manuscript
The author interface for each of these steps includes details on how
to enter the information required.
Formatting a Manuscript
Equations, Greek symbols and statistics
- Organizing your submission
- Abstract, acknowledgments and keywords
- Body text
1. Organizing your submission
Figures or tables in the body text of the manuscript cannot be processed and will generate errors during the submission procedure.
To submit, please separate your manuscript into the following file types:
- body text (rich-text format)
- tables (each table is an individual file, in rich-text format)
- figures (each figure is an individual image file: JPG, GIF, PNG)
- equations (each figure is an individual image file: JPG, GIF, PNG)
- appendices (most formats: text-only appendices must be in rich-text
The majority of word processing programs will save to Rich Text Format.
GIF and JPG image formats should be adequate for most non-animated figures.
If you are unable to save in one of these formats please contact the editorial office.
2. Abstract, Acknowledgments
- Enter your abstract, acknowledgments and keywords directly into the submission interface, either by typing or cut-and-paste.
- Do not include them in the body text of your
- Abstracts should be 300 words or less.
3. Body Text
- The Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style Guide, is recommended for details
- Manuscripts are currently accepted only in English.
- Write with precision, clarity, and economy:
use the active voice and first person whenever appropriate.
- Use American spellings (e.g., behavior, not behaviour) except for titles
published in British/Commonwealth English.
Spacing and Fonts
Single-space all material.
Separate paragraphs with a blank line.
Use a 12-point font (preferably Times Roman).
Italicize scientific names and the symbols for all variables and
constants except Greek letters in the text.
Symbols in Illustrations should be italic to match the text.
Italics should NOT be used for emphasis.
Do not underline text.
For common names of birds, follow the Ornithological Societies of North
America style (AOU checklist), with initial capital letters: Black-throated
Green Warbler. For all non-avian taxa, use lower case for common names
Avoid footnotes in the body text; most footnote material can be incorporated
in the text for the benefit of readers and editors. Additionally, footnotes
are not handled well by our journal software, and their inclusion may
result in a failed submission. Footnotes below tables are acceptable;
instead of numbers, please use (in order): †, ‡, §, |, ¶, #, ††, ‡‡, §§,
||, ¶¶, ##.
Use the International System of Units (SI) for measurements. Consult
Standard Practice for Use of the International System of Units
(ASTM Standard E-380-93) for guidance on unit conversions, style, and
usage. (The Standard can be purchased from ASTM, 1916 Race
Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103). When preparing text and figures, note
in particular that (1) SI requires the use of the terms mass or force
rather than weight; (2) when one unit appears in a denominator, use the
solidus (/); for two or more units in a denominator, use negative exponents;
and (3) use a capital L as the symbol for liter.
Use leading zeroes with all numbers <1, including probability values
(e.g., P < 0.001). For every significant F statistic reported, provide
two df values (numerator and denominator). Whenever possible, indicate
the year and version number of the statistical software used.
Web (HTML) links
Authors may include links to other Internet resources in their article
[e.g., the Breeding Bird Survey (http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/bbs.html)]. When inserting a reference to a webpage, please include the http:// portion of the address.
Headings and subheadings
Main headings: The body text should be subdivided into different sections
with appropriate headings. Where possible, the following standard headings
should be used. These headings must appear on a single line by themselves,
and be UPPER CASE.
|| The motivation or purpose of your research should appear in the
Introduction, where you state the questions you sought to answer,
and then provide some of the historical basis for those questions.
||Provide sufficient information to allow someone to repeat your work.
A clear description of your experimental design, sampling procedures,
and statistical procedures is especially important in papers describing
field studies, simulations, or experiments. If you list a product
(e.g., animal food, analytical device), supply the name and location
of the manufacturer. Give the model number for equipment used. Supply
complete citations, including author (or editor), title, year, publisher,
and version number, for computer software mentioned in your article.
||Results should be stated concisely and without interpretation.
||Focus on the rigorously supported aspects of your study. Carefully
differentiate the results of your study from data obtained from other
sources. Interpret your results, relate them to the results of previous
research, and discuss the implications of your results or interpretations.
Point out results that do not support speculations or the findings
of previous research, or that are counterintuitive.
||The list of Literature Cited should be included after the final
section of the main article body. A blank line should be inserted
between single-spaced entries in the list.
Where possible, the standard headings should be used in the order given
above. Additional headings may be used and modifications to these heading
suggestions are permissible
Secondary headings should be left-justified, bolded, and lowercase except for the intial letter of the first word which should be uppercase (e.g. Study site). Tertiary headings should be left-justified, italicized, and lowercase except for the intial letter of the first word which should be uppercase. (e.g. Field study and Simulation model).
All lower headings must appear on a line by themselves.
- Each citation in the text must be included in the Literature Cited section.
- Every reference in the Literature Cited must be referred to in the text.
- The list should conform in sequencing and punctuation to that found in
recent issues of Avian Conservation and Ecology.
PLEASE CHECK A RECENT ACE PUBLICATION FOR DETAILS OF STYLE.
Common Errors to Avoid:
All journal titles should be spelled out completely (i.e., do no abbreviate journal titles).
- In the titles of articles, capitalization of the common names of organisms and the spellings of all words should
agree exactly with that used in the original publication.
- Provide the publisher's name and location when you cite symposia or conference
proceedings; distinguish between the conference date and the publication
date if both are given (see example, below).
- Do not list abstracts or
unpublished material in the Literature Cited. They may be listed in the
text as personal observations (by an author of the present paper), personal
communications (from others), or unpublished x, where x
= data, manuscript, or report; provide author names and initials for all
unpublished work and abstracts.
- Links to online, freely available articles are permitted.
- Do not include links to password-protected websites or an author's website.
Exceptions to this rule include links to Birds of North America species accounts and links to author's websites that post a software program that is not available by any other means and is integral to the paper.
- Insert spaces between initials except in Washington, D.C.
- Last name appears first for first author; initial(s) first for subsequent
- In journal citations, there is no space between the colon and the
- Books and conference proceedings must include publisher information:
name, city, state or province (if pertinent), country.
- Conference proceedings must include the city, state/province, country,
and year in which the conference was held. Conference dates are typically
included, although not required. The editor(s) of the Proceedings should
be included, if possible.
- Journal articles in press should include the volume number of the
journal even if the page range is not known.
6. Attachments (tables, figs, etc.)
All tables, figures, text appendices, videos, computer simulations, and
databases constitute attachments to the body text of the manuscript. As
such, they must be submitted as separate files to be handled properly
by our software. During the submission process you will be required to
select your attachment type from a drop down list, and then type or paste
its associated caption – these steps are repeated until you have input
the captions for all of your attachments. You will then upload the attachment
files, and our software will generate a web page for each attachment based
on the file names and captions provided. Do not include captions or titles
in the attachment files themselves.
Equation files are not considered attachments. Please see the Equations
section below for information on how to format equations.
- Supply tables in rtf format.
- Ensure that row and column entries are denoted by cell divisions using the table function in the word processing software. That is, tabs, spaces or blank lines instead of table
cells to separate information will not work.
- Do not use horizontal or vertical lines to separate cells
- Use regular font in column headings (that is, no bold or italics)
- Single space all tables.
- Caption information is entered separately and should not appear in the table.
- Never repeat the same material in figures and tables; a figure is preferable.
- Do not include information in tables that is not discussed in the text of the manuscript.
- Figures are added during Step 5 of the submission process.
- Do not include title and caption information in the figure.
- Figures must be in .GIF, .JPG, or .PNG formats.
- Figures must be clear and sharp.
- the image will be printed at either 16 or 7.5 cm wide - text should be legible, clear, and sharp at that size
- Font must be large and legible at the smaller size; in Arial font.
- 72 dpi and no wider than 700 pixels (unless given explicit permission by the managing editor).
- We may ask you to supply high resolution, print-quality versions of your figures.
- Do not place a border around your figures
- Color figures must be legible when viewed in black and white.
- Use shaded, or hatched bars in preference to color or black ones.
- Initial upper case letters are preferred except where SI requires lower case letters for unit abbreviations (e.g., dbh, ln).
- Use italic lettering for single-letter variables, constants, and scientific names in illustrations to make them consistent with the text.
- Use bar graphs in preference to pie charts
Appendices are not copy edited nor formatted prior to publication so authors must ensure that their appendix is formatted correctly.
Appendices should be uploaded as a PDF, formatted according the the journal's style.
The top margin of the appendix must be 4 cm.
Include a heading and caption in your pdf, where the heading "Appendix #." is left aligned, bold and the caption is Sentence Case.
A single appendix is referred to in the main article as "the Appendix." Multiple appendices should be identified as 1, 2, 3, etc..
Table and figure numbers in appendices should be keyed to the letter identifying that appendix: Fig. A1.1, for Figure 1 in Appendix 1; Table A2.3 for Table 3 in Appendix
2. Equations should be numbered similarly: A2.3, for Equation 3 in Appendix
2, and so on (see example).
are formatted with a double line above the heading, and single lines below
the heading and below the last table row (see
Enter all title and caption information when asked during
the submission process, and upload each appendix as a separate file.
All other non-text appendices, such as databases, video or sound files
may be uploaded using an appropriate filetype for the file contents. Appendices
should be labeled logically to indicate content (i.e. "Program#.filetype",
"Sound#.filetype"). Captions should describe the attachment fully (by
content, file format, usage, software required to run them, etc.) and
are uploaded separately during the submission process.
7. Equations and Greek characters
Insert a tag in the form <eqn#> into the body text of your manuscript
wherever you would like an equation to appear, where # = 1,2,3...n and
indicates the sequential number of the equation. Once you have uploaded
the body text, you will be prompted to upload your equation(s). Upload
each equation as a separate graphic file named eqn#.gif, where # corresponds
to the tags inserted into the body text. Any one equation may be specified
any number of times by inserting the appropriate tag in the manuscript
in multiple locations.
To include Greek characters in your manuscript please either use the
"Insert -- Symbol" feature in Microsoft Word, or write out the
full name of the Greek character and enclose the word in parentheses (e.g.,
<alpha>, <beta>) within the text of your manuscript
(click here for a complete list
of Greek characters and the associated full name).
Submission Preparation Checklist (All items required)
|•||This submission has not been published elsewhere, nor is it at present being considered for publication by another journal.|
|•||The text adheres to the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines (see About the Journal).|
|•||The manuscript complies with the stated word limits. If not, it may be subject to additional charges|
|•||The text of the paper itself and that of the tables and any textual appendices are in Rich Text Format (RTF); the main body of the text has no embedded figures, equations, or tables.|
|•||Equations and figures, if present, are correctly referenced in the body text of the paper and you have individual image files of the equations and figures ready for upload.|