Table 2. Sets of competing best multi-strata mark-recapture models for 14 species of songbirds breeding in boreal forests of western Newfoundland, 2003-2006. Best models are highlighted in bold. The last model reported in each set is the most general global model, which was used to calculate the variance inflation factor for that model set (c-hat). Effective n is the number of releases of marked individuals back into the population up to the penultimate net round, whereas % CUT indicates the percentage of captures that occurred on netting sites located in clearcut landscapes, i.e., vs. naturally fragmented landscapes. Species codes are from Table 1. Terms in models are as follows: land = landscape type (CUT or NAT); sex = sex; tp4 = 4 time phases for S (breeding season newly-marked, breeding season resident, over winter newly-marked, and over winter resident); tp3 = as with tp4, but with residents and newly marked birds combined to estimate only one over winter survival rate; year = year; trend = linear trend in p within each breeding season; round = independent estimation of p for each net round within a season; effort = net effort; time = independent estimate of p for every net round in every year; t2 = Ψ for two periods, i.e., breeding season and over winter.

Model K Q dev. QAICc Δi ωi
YBFL (n = 181; % CUT = 59%; effective n = 231; c-hat = 1.00)
S(tp3)p(year+effort)Ψ(land) 10 313.55 474.32 0.00 0.23
S(land*tp3)p(year+effort)Ψ(land) 13 306.97 474.43 0.11 0.22
S(land+tp3)p(year+effort)Ψ(land) 11 311.83 474.81 0.49 0.18
S(tp4)p(year+effort)Ψ(land) 11 312.90 475.88 1.56 0.10
S(land+tp4)p(year+effort)Ψ(land) 12 310.93 476.14 1.82 0.09
S(land*tp4)p(year+effort)Ψ(land) 15 304.22 476.23 1.91 0.09
S(land*tp4)p(year+effort)Ψ(land+t2) 16 303.91 478.23 3.91 0.03
GRAJ (n = 59; % CUT = 38%; effective n = 103; c-hat = 1.00)
S(tp4)p(.)Ψ(land+t2) 8 294.72 397.35 0.00 0.69
S(land+tp4)p(.)Ψ(land+t2) 9 294.27 399.30 1.95 0.26
S(land*tp4)p(.)Ψ(land+t2) 12 291.06 403.62 6.27 0.03
BOCH (n = 59; % CUT = 32%; effective n = 120; c-hat = 1.25)
S(tp3)p(land*trend)Ψ(.) 8 143.75 220.30 0.00 0.52
S(tp4)p(land*trend)Ψ(.) 9 143.10 221.99 1.69 0.22
S(land+tp3)p(land*trend)Ψ(.) 9 143.74 222.62 2.32 0.16
S(land*tp4)p(effort+land*trend)Ψ(land+t2) 16 142.25 238.98 18.68 0.00
AMRO (nmale = 90, nfemale = 77; % CUT = 63%; effective n = 229; c-hat = 1.00)
S(tp3)p(round)Ψ(land) 11 387.62 553.86 0.00 0.39
S(sex+tp3)p(round)Ψ(land) 12 387.22 555.70 1.84 0.15
S(land+tp3)p(round)Ψ(land) 12 387.59 556.07 2.21 0.13
S(tp4)p(round)Ψ(land) 12 387.61 556.09 2.23 0.13
S(land*sex*tp4)p(sex+round+effort)Ψ(land+sex+t2) 28 377.99 585.14 31.28 0.00
HETH (nmale = 79, nfemale = 71; % CUT = 56%; effective n = 302; c-hat = 1.21)
S(tp4)p(round+effort)Ψ(sex) 13 604.13 780.14 0.00 0.47
S(sex+tp4)p(round+effort)Ψ(sex) 14 603.66 781.87 1.73 0.20
S(land+tp4)p(round+effort)Ψ(sex) 14 603.91 782.12 1.98 0.18
S(land*sex*tp4)p(land+sex+round+effort)Ψ(land+sex+t2) 29 596.94 810.08 29.94 0.00
SWTH (n = 162; ; % CUT = 48%; effective n = 229; c-hat = 1.23)
S(tp3) p(land+round+effort)Ψ(land) 13 283.66 430.50 0.00 0.49
S(land+tp3) p(land+round+effort)Ψ(land) 14 282.95 432.05 1.55 0.23
S(land+tp4) p(land+round+effort)Ψ(land) 14 283.66 432.76 2.26 0.16
S(land*tp4)p(land+round+effort)Ψ(land+t2) 19 280.89 441.67 11.17 0.00
RCKI (nmale = 93, nfemale = 67; % CUT = 36%; effective n = 197; c-hat = 1.00)
S(land+tp3)p(trend)Ψ(.) 7 151.41 279.25 0.00 0.41
S(land+tp4)p(trend)Ψ(.) 8 151.15 281.16 1.91 0.16
S(land+sex+tp3)p(trend)Ψ(.) 8 151.33 281.34 2.09 0.14
S(land*sex+tp3)p(trend)Ψ(.) 9 149.48 281.69 2.44 0.12
S(land*sex*tp4)p(land+sex+trend+year)Ψ(land+sex+t2) 27 143.32 319.51 40.26 0.00
BLPW (nmale = 248, nfemale = 179; % CUT = 52%; effective n = 655; c-hat = 1.17)
S(tp3)p(round+effort)Ψ(.) 11 805.11 1310.26 0.00 0.25
S(tp4)p(round+effort)Ψ(.) 12 804.07 1311.29 1.03 0.15
S(sex+tp3)p(round+effort)Ψ(.) 12 804.47 1311.69 1.43 0.12
S(land*sex*tp4)p(land+sex+round+effort)Ψ(land+sex+t2) 29 792.46 1335.99 25.73 0.00
NOWA (n = 117; % CUT = 36%; effective n = 142; c-hat = 1.24)
S(tp3)p(land+trend)Ψ(land) 8 157.27 229.93 0.00 0.41
S(tp4)p(land+trend)Ψ(land) 9 156.04 230.99 1.06 0.24
S(land+tp3)p(land+trend)Ψ(land) 9 157.24 232.18 2.25 0.13
S(land*tp4)p(land+trend+effort)Ψ(land+t2) 15 149.35 238.74 8.81 0.00
MYWA (nmale = 278, nfemale = 232; % CUT = 48%; effective n = 705; c-hat = 1.12)
S(land+tp4)p(time)Ψ(.) 32 646.43 1320.01 0.00 0.37
S(tp4)p(time)Ψ(.) 31 649.62 1321.01 1.00 0.22
S(land+sex+tp4)p(time)Ψ(.) 33 646.33 1322.16 2.09 0.13
S(land*sex+tp4)p(time)Ψ(.) 34 644.30 1322.34 2.28 0.12
S(land*sex*tp4)p(land+sex+time)Ψ(land+sex+t2) 48 637.52 1347.18 27.12 0.00
FOSP (n = 84; % CUT = 62%; effective n = 122; c-hat = 1.00)
S(tp3)p(trend)Ψ(.) 6 186.26 278.40 0.00 0.42
S(land+tp3)p(trend)Ψ(.) 7 184.89 279.29 0.89 0.27
S(tp4)p(trend)Ψ(.) 7 185.97 280.36 1.96 0.16
S(land*tp4)p(land+trend+effort)Ψ(land+t2) 15 180.92 294.86 16.46 0.00
LISP (nmale = 124, nfemale = 67; % CUT = 44%; effective n =384; c-hat = 1.05)
S(sex*tp3)p(land+sex+year+trend*effort)Ψ(.) 16 668.79 1009.94 0.00 0.22
S(land*sex+sex*tp3)p(land+sex+year+trend*effort)Ψ(.) 18 665.25 1010.80 0.86 0.14
S(sex+tp3)p(land+sex+year+trend*effort)Ψ(.) 14 674.10 1010.91 0.97 0.14
S(land+sex*tp3)p(land+sex+year+trend*effort)Ψ(.) 17 668.34 1011.68 1.74 0.09
S(land*sex*tp4)p(land+sex+year+trend*effort)Ψ(land+sex+t2) 29 661.66 1032.24 22.30 0.00
SCJU (nmale = 115, nfemale = 57; % CUT = 67%; effective n = 275; c-hat = 1.00)
S(tp4)p(land+trend)Ψ(.) 8 433.86 700.82 0.00 0.32
S(tp3)p(land+trend)Ψ(.) 7 436.37 701.20 0.39 0.27
S(sex+tp4)p(land+trend)Ψ(.) 9 433.73 702.82 2.00 0.12
S(land+tp4)p(land+trend)Ψ(.) 9 433.79 702.88 2.06 0.12
S(land*sex*tp4)p(land+sex+trend+effort)Ψ(land+sex+t2) 25 430.47 732.72 32.86 0.00
WTSP (nmale = 242, nfemale = 143; % CUT = 53%; effective n = 728; c-hat = 1.07)
S(sex*tp3)p(land+time)Ψ(sex) 35 1095.41 1896.66 0.00 0.45
S(land+sex*tp3)p(land+time)Ψ(sex) 36 1094.14 1897.60 0.94 0.28
S(sex*tp4)p(land+time)Ψ(sex) 37 1093.76 1899.44 2.77 0.11
S(land*sex*tp4)p(land+sex+time)Ψ(land+sex+t2) 48 1085.80 1916.33 19.67 0.00