Fig. 1. The study area, a 540,000-km˛ forest-dominated territory, with the 156 25-km˛ square plots. Circular grey-shaded pictograms symbolize clear-cut density (%) in each plot calculated over the total area located within 1-km from any clear-cut area. Low values indicate small, scattered clear-cut areas whereas high values (max. 59%) indicate large, clustered clear-cut areas.