Fig. 2. Range of Allee effects used in a perturbation analysis of a stage-based, discrete, stochastic population viability analysis for large woodpeckers. The intercept (▀0) and slope (▀a) of the relationship between current population size and probability of breeding decreases as the Allee effect becomes stronger. The intercept and slope are shown to the right of each curve (▀0, ▀a). Population sizes exceeding 2, 5, and 11 ensure that all individuals in the population will attempt to breed under the three scenarios, respectively.