Fig. 3. Relationship between annual adult survival rates and mean clutch sizes of woodpecker species. The solid line indicates the mean, and the dashed lines indicate the 95% confidence limits of the regression line. The logit-transformed intercept and slope of the model were 1.97 ± 1.10 and -0.400 ± 0.178 (estimate ± 95% CI) , respectively. (a) Lesser Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos minor), (b) Middle Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius), (c) Great Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos major), (d) White-backed Woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos), (e) Three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus), (f) Black Woodpecker (Mattsson and Christensen, unpublished data), (g) Black Woodpecker (Rolstad et al. 1995), (h) Pileated Woodpecker (Bonar 2001), (i) Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus), (j) Red-naped Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), (k) Red-bellied Sapsucker (Melanerpes carolinus), (l) Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), (m) Golden-fronted Woodpecker (Melanerpes aurifrons), (n) Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus), (o) Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus), (p) Red-cockaded Woodpecker (DeLotelle and Epting 1992), (q) Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Walters et al. 1988, Labranche and Walters 1994), (r) Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), (s) Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus), (t) Nuttall’s Woodpecker (Picoides nuttallii). Circles indicate that the clutch size and survival rate were obtained from the same population. Otherwise, clutch sizes were obtained from Winkler et al. (1995), and survival rates were obtained from Pasinelli (2006) and Wiebe (2006) for European (a–g) and North American (h–t) species, respectively.