Fig. 4. Years of persistence under two scenarios in a stochastic, stage-based, discrete population model of large-bodied woodpeckers. For the better-case scenario, all input parameters were at their intermediate values, and there was no Allee effect. For the worse-case scenario, initial population size and mean values for annual adult survival and fecundity were held at low values, variances of these demographic rates were held at high values, and there was no Allee effect. The center horizontal line in each box represents the median, edges of boxes represent the interquartile range, whiskers represent the 10th and 90th percentiles, and the symbol x indicates values beyond these percentiles. The 10th–90th percentiles were equal to 100 in the better-case scenario.