Fig. 1. Annual mortality of Canadian birds due to human activities (log-scale). Panel A shows stage-specific estimates for each activity, according to whether entire nests, single eggs/nestlings, or mobile individuals were killed, as in original papers and reports. Values include both means and medians, and error bars represent both confidence limits (90% or 95%) and maximum/minimum ranges, as originally presented. Panel B shows converted mortality estimates for each activity (median with 90% confidence limits), where stage-specific kill totals have been converted to the equivalent number of potential adult breeders based on a stochastic model incorporating species-composition and demography. Hollow symbols indicate mortality only estimated for part of Canada or for a limited number of species, and thus where total Canada-wide cross-taxa mortality is likely much higher than these estimates. Panel C shows these same converted estimates (median with 90% confidence limits), pooled across related activities (cats: feral and pet; transportation: vehicle-collisions, road maintenance, and chronic ship-source oil; buildings: collisions with all 3 types; power: transmission-line collisions, hydro reservoirs, electrocutions, transmission-line maintenance, and wind energy; agriculture: haying and pesticides; harvest: migratory and nonmigratory birds; fisheries: all gear types; oil and gas: all terrestrial and marine sources; mining: both pits/quarries and metals/minerals), as well as the original single-source values for forestry and communication towers. Values in all panels are ranked in descending order according to the converted kill totals. See text and Appendix 2 for citations of papers and reports used as data sources.

Fig. 1